On President’s Day: Washington’s Farewell Address

by Rebecca Ripperton
February 18th, 2019

To commemorate President’s Day, as well as the birthdays of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, we will feature two speeches delivered by these two former presidents on the blog this week. The first speech is Washington’s “Farewell Address,” first published on September 19th, 1796, and the second is “On the Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions” (often referred to as the “Lyceum Address”) delivered by Abraham Lincoln on January 27th, 1838 in Springfield, Illinois.

Why study Washington's Farewell Address?

A little over 222 years ago, George Washington made the decision not to seek a 3rd term in office and his famous Farewell Address was published in a Philadelphia newspaper. It was a letter of valediction to the American people at that time, and one that remains a rich and forceful document, filled with counsel that is as relevant today as it was in the 18th century; in his own words, President Washington offers “the disinterested warnings of a parting friend.” As a founding father and the unanimously elected president of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, George Washington was well acquainted with the perils facing the American nation, and many scholars have noted how eerily accurate his predictions have turned out to be.

Perhaps some of you have read his Address in your History classes, and maybe even with your own children or students. If your children have not yet read this Address, however, I encourage you to share it with them once they are of a suitable age (depending on the individual, 13+). George Washington’s circumspection here is an example of statesmanship at its finest. His civic duty was one he regarded with the utmost seriousness, and throughout each and every line of this letter, Washington’s love for his country rings out.

Reading the writings and speeches of early American statesmen is without doubt one of the most effective ways to acquaint any young person with traditional American values and both the content and the import of our constitution, not to mention an excellent way to expose them to exemplary rhetoric. Any serious study of our founding documents is also likely to inspire in the reader a deepened love of country, an appreciation for the care and introspection with which the constitution was crafted, and an aspiration to be a better, more thoughtful citizen. In Federalist 51, Madison asks, “what is government itself, but the greatest of all reflections on human nature”? Through studying our government, we learn about ourselves; we are forced to admit our flaws – individual and collective – and work to correct them. Being an engaged citizen is a continual challenge, but it is also an endlessly rewarding and noble one.

In recommending this speech, I am reminded of an admonition a former professor of mine once gave to a hall of college freshman. He said (and I am paraphrasing), “The Great Books – the U.S. Constitution, the Bible, Plato’s dialogues, etc. – do not bend to human desires. They were not designed to please us, and we do not get to decide whether or not they are good enough for us and for our opinions. Instead, we must work to be good enough for them; we must rise to meet the standard they set.” In this Address, President Washington offers insight into how we may continue the work of rising to meet the standard of our constitution, how we may better strive as a people to be good enough for it.

Discussion questions and essay prompts

Lastly, if you have the desire and opportunity to discuss the Farewell Address either in a classroom or at home, the following are some questions that you might use to guide your conversation. (You could have students write about one or more of these questions, as well.)

  • Why does Washington oppose political parties? What does he perceive their danger(s) to be?
  • Why might Washington favor parties under a monarchy but not in the setting of a ‘popular’ government?
  • How do friendships differ from factions? How may citizens under a government sustain strong friendships without succumbing to the temptation of political party?
  • What does Washington mean when he says “The precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil any partial or transient benefit, which the use can at any time yield”? Why is it so important to exercise judiciousness in this regard?
  • What kind of relationship does Washington believe exists between morality and religion? Given his assertions, what role should religion play in a government that “shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof”?
  • What is the relationship between Washington’s stance on foreign policy and his opinion of political parties? In what ways are they similar? How might they differ?
  • Why does Washington believe that a national union is “the palladium of […] political safety and prosperity”? How does he justify the importance of national unity?
  • If “to preserve [reciprocal checks in the exercise of political power] must be as necessary as to institute them,” is the work of the modern statesman any different from that of the founding fathers? Does this assertion in any way alter your understanding of what the current work of the government should be?
  • What does it mean to be a good citizen in George Washington’s eyes? What is the work of a good citizen?

Introducing Chapter Books: Farm Stories

by Lisa Ripperton
February 14, 2019

This on-going series – Introducing Chapter Books – is intended to highlight books that are ideal for families who are just beginning to read chapter books aloud with their children. In our experience we have found that children are typically ready to undertake the challenge of listening to stories without illustrations on each page around age five, and all of the books mentioned in this series have been selected with this age and purpose in mind. A later series will discuss books to use when your child is transitioning to reading chapter books independently.  

In introducing children to chapter books, we recommend reading aloud THE SANDMAN: His Farm Stories by William J. Hopkins with children who have already enjoyed Ox-Cart Man, the nationally-beloved picture book written by Donald Hall and illustrated by Caldecott Medal winner Barbara Cooney. Those children who love the simple story of the New England farmer who loads his ox-cart at harvest time with goods his family produced that year, takes them to sell at market, then walks home with coins jingling in his pocket, are primed to hear stories that offer more information about the process of growing products for market. His Farm Stories by William J. Hopkins provides 21 detailed stories of that sort, making it an excellent book to follow Ox-Cart Man and an ideal first chapter book for young readers to listen to.

What makes His Farm Stories a great choice for younger listeners?

In each chapter the author recreates a familiar world that children will recognize with excitement. Every story begins in the same way,

Once upon a time there was a farm-house, and it was painted white and had green blinds; and it stood not far from the road. In the fence was a wide gate to let the wagons through to the barn. And the wagons, going through, had made a track that led up past the kitchen door and past the shed and past the barn and past the orchard to the wheat-field.

setting the scene for the story and beckoning the young listener to follow along.

And every story ends the same way, “And that's all.”

In between we encounter the same characters in this three-generation household ─ Uncle John, little John, Aunt Deborah, Uncle Solomon, and Aunt Phyllis ─ going about their daily business on the farm, doing work that varies with the seasons. Each chapter, focusing on a single activity, is a complete story, independent from what came before and what follows after. Episodic stories such as these enable the young listener to enter fully into an individual chapter, with no need to keep a more involved plot line in mind.

How does the author depict farm life and its seasonal activities?

On this 19th century farmstead, where virtually everything the family eats, they produce themselves, we witness the cooperative efforts of all members of the three-generation household. In many of the stories we hear about Uncle John and Uncle Solomon working in tandem to do strenuous outdoor labor, while in others, Aunt Deborah and Aunt Phyllis take turns churning butter and preparing meals. Even little John shares in the chores: driving cows to and from pasture, gathering eggs, sorting apples, raking hay, and tagging along and helping as he is able. The loading of the ox-cart for market requires the effort of all, including the faithful team of oxen who are indispensable assistants in the heavy work of the farm.

An immense amount of detail emerges in these simple stories of farm life. In the story about corn, for example, we hear how Uncle John used oxen to plow a furrow, and then harrow it, before teaming up with little John to poke holes in the ground and plant the seeds. When the corn is ripe, they strip the ears of corn off the stalks one day, then rub the kernels off the cob the next (saving the cobs to use in starting fires). Some of the corn they set aside for seed for the following spring, and some to take to market, taking the remaining sacks of corn to the mill to have it ground, eventually to be made into johnnycake in another story.

The author crafted these stories over a period of three years by telling them to his young and highly inquisitive son. Commenting on the editorial support his son provided, he says, “The detail, which may seem excessive to an older critic, was in every case ─ until I had learned to put it in at the start ─ the result of a searching cross-examination. If the bars were not put up again, the cows might get out; and if the oxen did not pass, on their return, all the familiar objects, how did they get back to the barn?”

His Farm Stories

​​​​​Twenty-one stories of the everyday doings of Little John around the farm: fetching water, grinding corn, making cider, growing wheat, boiling maple syrup, and so on.
Ages 5-8

What will children take away from His Farm Stories?

Different children will take away different ideas from His Farm Stories and its sequel More Farm Stories. Some children may marvel at the long sequence of steps involved in producing foods that today they can easily purchase at the grocery store. Others may be fascinated by the technology ─ the elaborate mechanical systems devised to saw logs, press cider, and grind grain. Still others may be more interested in how life was different without running water, electricity, or motor vehicles. Yet another group, captivated by the images of the countryside in Ox-Cart Man, may be called upon to imagine in their mind’s eye what this particular farm looked like at every season, where the fields and orchard were situated in relation to one another, how the tools, feed, and animals were arranged inside the barn, and so on.

More Farm Stories

Twenty-one more stories about Little John working and playing on the farm, engaged in such activities as tending animals, growing corn, and chopping wood, or fishing, skating, and sledding.
Ages 5-8

What ages are the Farm Stories books best for?

The author used them with his young son from ages 4 to 6, who, he reported, “has heard them repeated many times, and his interest has never flagged. As the farm stories slowly grew in number, they entirely displaced the other stories.” But if the stories don’t strike a chord with your child at 4, be sure to try again when they are a year older.

How can you support your children's interest in olden times?

If His Farm Stories resonates with your children, you can further their interest by visiting living history museums. Our own family made a regular practice of doing just that. We visited the Frontier Culture Museum in the Shenandoah Valley of western Virginia several times, as well as Old Sturbridge Village in central Massachusetts, not far from where His Farm Stories takes place. Nothing beats the opportunity to see the threshing of wheat, the hackling of flax, and the baking of bread in a brick fireplace in person, especially with a knowledgeable docent at hand to field your child’s every question!

Purchase Books at Amazon

THE SANDMAN: His Farm Stories
by William J. Hopkins

THE SANDMAN: More Farm Stories
 by William J. Hopkins

Read Online

​Get Ebooks

​Get access to the ebook editions of ​​THE SANDMAN: His Farm Stories and ​​THE SANDMAN: More Farm Stories by purchasing the Yesterday's Classics Ebook Treasury, Volume 1

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